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Naphtha General or High Aromatic Naphtha

Naphtha is generally used as fertilizer feed stock and as fuel in fertilizer plants' gas turbines and various other applications. The limited use of Naphtha in our country has necessitated export of balance quantity of this Naphtha.

Naphtha Petro Chemical Or Low Aromatic Naphtha
Naphtha Petro Chemical or Low Aromatic Naphtha is used for the manufacture of various types of petrochemicals and fertilizers.

Specification of Low Aromatic Naphtha
Sr. No. Characteristics Test method IS:1448 Requirements
1. Density @ 15 0 C, g/ml P:16 0.66 to 0.76
2. Sulphur (Lamp) %wt., max. P:34 0.15
3. Residue on Evaporation (AirJet), mg/100 ml., max. P:29 10
4. Aromatics, %v., Max. (Typical) P:23 25 (7.90)
5. Olefins, % v., Max. P:23 1
6. Calorific Value-Gross, Kcal/Kg., typical P:7 11,399
7. Carbon/Hydrogen Ratio by wt.(calculated) (1) 5 to 6
8. Distillation : P:18  
  a. IBP°C, min.   34
  a. FBP° C, max.   160
1) Carbon/Hydrogen Ratio=(74+15d)/(26+15d) Where d = Specific Gravity @ 60/60 0 F.

High Speed Diesel (HSD)
HSD is normally used as a fuel in medium and high speed compression ignition engines (operating) above 750 rpm) in commercial vehicles, stationary diesel engines, locomotives and pumps etc.

Diesel specification for Bharat Stage III and Bharat Stage IV (High Speed Diesel confirms to IS 1460 : 2005, Amendment 1, 2007 & Amendment 2, Mar.2010)
Characteristics Requirements of HSD Bharat Stage III Requirements of HSD Bharat Stage IV Test Method [P:] of IS 1448/ISO
Acidity inorganic Nil Nil [P:2]
Acidity total mg of KOH/g Max 0.20 0.20 [P:2]
Ash percent by mass Max 0.01 0.01 [P:4] / ISO 6245
Carbon residue(Ramsbottom) on 10 percent residue, % mass, Max 0.30 0.30 [P:8] / ISO 10370
Cetane Number, Min 51 51 [P:9] / ISO 5165
Cetane Index, Min 46 46 [ASTM D 4737] / ISO 4264
Pour Point, ° C, Max     [P:10]
a.  Winter 3 3  
b.  Summer 15 15  
Copper strip corrosion for 3 h at 100°C Not worse than No. 1 Not worse than No. 1 [P:15]/ISO 2160
Distillation, % v/v recovered     [P:18]/ISO 3405
a.  at 350°C Min 85 85  
b.  at 360°C Min 95 95  
Flash Point      
a.  Abel, °C Min 35 35 [P:20]
b.  Pensky Martens, °C Min 66 (1) 66 (1) [P:21]
Kinematic Viscosity, cSt at 40° C 2.0 to 4.5 2.0 to 4.5 [P:25] / ISO 3104
Total Contamination, mg / kg 24 24 EN 12662
Density at 15°C kg/cu.m 820 - 845 820 - 845 [P:16] or [P:32]
ISO 3675 or 12185
Total sulphur, mg/kg, Max 350 50 IP 336or ASTM D 4294
ISO 14596 or 8754
Water Content, mg/kg, Max 200 200 ISO 12937
Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP), °C,  Max     [P:110]
a.  Winter 6 6  
a.  Summer 18 18  
Total Sediment, mg per 100 ml, Max 1.5 1.5 ASTM D 2274
Oxidation stability, gm / cu.m, Max 25 25 ISO 12205
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), % by mass, Max 11 11 IP 391 Or EN 12916
Lubricity corrected wear scar diameter (wsd 1.4) at 60°C, microns, Max 460 460 ISO 12156-1
Oxygen content,% vol., Max 0.6 0.6 Gas Chromatography
  1. Applicable for naval applications and Fishing Vessels requiring High Flash HSD

High Flash High Speed Diesel (HFHSD)
HF HSD is generally meant for Naval applications and Fishing Vessels requiring High Flash HSD. Specification of HFHSD is given as under :

Sl No. Characteristics Requirements Methods of Test, Requirements Methods of Test, Methods of Test, [P:] of IS:1448
(i) Nil [P:2] Acidity, inorganic Nil [P:2]    
(ii) [P:2] Acidity, total, mg of KOH/ g, Max 0.20 [P:2]    
(iii) Ash, percent by mass, Max 0.01 [P:4]
(iv) Carbon residue (Ramsbottom) on 10 percent residue, percent by mass, MAX 0.30 [P:8]
(v) Cetane number, Min 48 [P:9]
            Cetane index, Min 46        [P*]     
(vi)       Pour point, Max             [P:10]  
            a) Winter 3OC       
            b) Summer 15OC                                                                        
(vii)      Copper strip corrosion for 3 h at 100OC Not worse than No.1 [P:15]  
(viii)     Distillation, percent v/v, recovered             [P:18]  
            a) at 350OC, Min 85  
            b) at 360OC, Min To Be Reported  
            c) at 370OC, Min 95                                                                            
(ix)       Flash point (PMCC), OC, Min 66        [P:21]  
(x)        Kinematic viscosity, cSt at 40OC 2.0 to 5.0 [P:25]  
(xi)       Sediment by extraction, percent by mass, Max 0.05     [P:30]  
(xii) Density at 15OC, kg/ m3 820 - 860 [P:16]  
(xiii) Total sulphur, percent by mass, Max 0.2       [P:33]  
(xiv) Water content, percent by volume, Max 0.05     [P:40]  
(xv) Cold filter plugging point (CFPP), Max           [P:110]
  a) Winter 6OC       
  b) Summer 18OC     
(xvi) Total sediments mg per 100 ml, Max 1.5 Appendix A

Conforms to IS:1460 - 2000

Diesel High Sulphur Pour Point (DHPP)

DHPP is a terminology adapted by Army and used for various Defence applications. Variants of DHPP include:

DHPP (N): Is the normal diesel used in Army applications, meeting the requirements of BS II HSD.

DHPP (A): Is used by Army and Navy for applications. Specifications are close to BS IV HSD, with additional requirements and specifications in respect of certain characteristics that are more rigid.

DHPP (W): Special type of HSD, meant for Defence applications of extreme cold weather conditions, with operating temperatures from 10°C to (-)18°C.

DHPP (Z): Special type of HSD, meant for Defence applications of extreme cold weather conditions, with operating temperatures from (-)18°C to (-)40°C.

Kerosene [SKO]
Applications can be broadly grouped under the following heads:

  • Illuminant In wick-fed chimney lamps, wick-fed incandescent mantle devices, also in pressure burner type lamps fitted with mantles.
  • Fuel in cooking stoves, ranges, ovens, blow lamps, etc.
  • Cleaning fluid/decreasing of components.
  • Solvent in paints/printing inks.
  • Raw material for the manufacture of n-paraffin / White Oil

* 22 for Defence and Railways, Signal Lamps
** 0.2 for Defence

Conforms to IS:1459-1974 Kerosene Specification.

Motor Gasoline / Motor Spirit (Petrol)

Motor spirit is mainly used in Spark ignition engines. For Industrial units it is primarily supplied through Consumer Pumps /Customer installed Facilities for 2/3/4 wheelers.

Requirements of Motor Gasoline – BS III / BS IV are given as under :

Specification of SKO is given as under :

Sl No. Characteristics Requirements BS III Requirements BS IV Methods of Test, Ref. to [P:] of IS:1448/ISO/Annex
    MG 91 / MG 95 MG 91 / MG 95  
(i) Colour, Visual As decided by Refiners / Marketers  
(ii Density, 15OC, kg/ m3 720 – 775               720 – 775 [P:16]1)/ ISO 3675/ ASTM D 4052
(iii) Distillation :      [P:18]1)/ ISO 3405/ ASTM D 86
  Recovery upto 70OC (E 70) percent by volume 10 – 45 10 – 45  
  Recovery upto 100OC (E 100) percent by volume 40 – 70 40 – 70  
  Recovery upto 150OC (E 150) percent by volume, Min 75 75  
  Final boiling point (FBP), OC, Max 210 210  
  Residue, percent by volume, Max 2 2  
(iv) Research octane number (RON), Min 91 / 95 91 / 95 [P:27]1)/ ISO 5164/ ASTM D 2699
(v)           Motor Octane Number (MON), Min 81/ 85 81 / 85 [P:26]1)/ ISO 5163/ ASTM D 2700
(vi) Existent Gum, g/ m3, Max 40 40 [P:29]1)/ ISO 6246/ ASTM D 381
(vii) Oxidation Stability, minutes, Min 360 360 [P:28]1)/ ISO 7536/ ASTM D 525/ IP 40
(viii) Sulphur total, ppmw, Max 150 50 [P:34/ P:83/ ISO 20847/ ISO 4260/ ISO 14596/  ASTM D 1266/ D 2622/ D 3120/ D 5453                                                                                                                     
(ix) Lead content (as Pb), g/ l, Max     0.005 0.005 0.005 [P:80]/ IP 224/  IP 3521)/ ASTM D 5059
(x) Reid vapour pressure (RVP) at 38OC, kPa 60 (67) 60 (67) [P:39]1/ ASTM D 3007/ ASTM D 323 (wet Method)/ D 5191 (Dry method)/ EN 13016/ Annex A (Dry method) (see Note 2)
(xi) Vapour lock index (VLI), (VLI = 10RVP + 7E 70), Max (see Note 1):                 
  Summer (see Note 2) 750 (900) 750 (900)  
  Other than summer months 950 (1050) 950 (1050)  
(xii) Benzene content, percent by vol, Max 1.0 1.0 ASTM D 3606 (see note 4)/ D 5580/ D 6277/        D 6730
(xiii) Copper strip corrosion for 3 h at 50OC

Not more than 1

[P:15]1)/ ISO 2160/ ASTM D 130
(xiv) Engine Intake System cleanliness (Note 6) 

Report MFA used

(xv) Olefin Content, % vol, Max. 21 / 18 21 / 18 [P:23]1)/ ASTM D 1319/ D 6730/ ISO 3837                
(xvi) Aromatics Content, % vol, Max.    42 35 [P:23]/ ISO 3837/ ASTM D 1319/ D 6730/ D 5580
(xvii) Oxygen Content, %wt, Max.            2.7 2.7 Annex C & Annex D/ ASTM D 4815/ EN 1601/ IP 408          
(xviii) Oxygenates Content, %vol, max     ASTM D 4815/ Annex C
  Methanol NIL NIL  
  Ethanol (see Note 7)                                 5 5  
  Iso-Propyl Alcohol 10 10  
  Iso-Butyl Alcohol 10 10  
  Tertiary-butyl Alcohol 7 7  
  Ethers containing 5 or more Carbon Atoms per molecule 15 15  
  Other Oxygenates (see Note 8) 8 8  
  • Notes :
  • Limits given in () shall be applicable to 5% v/v ethanol blended gasoline only.
  • For the gasoline-alcohol blends, the dry vapour test method given in Annex A shall be followed.
  • Summer shall be the period from May to July.
  • It is applicable only for non-alcoholic motor gasoline.
  • In winter (Dec to Feb) it is expected that temperature may be lower than 0OC in the norther hilly region and hence phase separation shall not take place till -10OC.
  • Use of multifunctional additive (MFA) is a requirement for assuring adequate fuel system and intake system cleanliness performance in engines. Refiners/ Marketers of motor gasoline have to ensure that MFA has proper credentials from internationally accepted test laboratories/ authorities, of having passed a minimum of one of the tests in each of the two categories of deposit control performance indicated below :
Deposit Type Test No. Test Equipment Test Method
a) Intake valve 1. BMW IVD Test ASTM D 5500-97
Deposit (IVD) 2. MB M 102E IVD CEC F-05-A-93
  3. FORD 2.3 litre IVD ASTM D 6201
  4. MB M111-IV D test CEC F-20-A-98
b) Port fuel 1. Chrysler PFI test ASTM D 5598-95A
 Injector deposit (PFI) 2. PFI deposit Rig ASTM D 6421-99A
  • Other performance tests may be added as and when they reach qualified/ standard test status.
  • Corrosion inhibitors and/ or stabilising agents may be added. For routine analysis of ethanol content, Method ASTM D 5845 (FTIR) or/ and Water extraction method may be employed (see Annex E)
  • Acetone is not permitted except when present as a by-product of the manufacture of certain oxygenate compounds and then only up to 0.8% v/v.
  • All the test methods referred to in this standard include a precision statement. The interpretation of results based on test method/ precision shall be used, whenever applicable. In case of dispute the procedure described in ISO 4259 shall be used.

1) In case of dispute, this method shall be the referee method.

2) MFAs which are certified against National Generic Certification Option as per US EPA-97 final rule (40 CFR Part 80 Certification Standards for Deposit Control Additives) can also be used by fuel refiners/ Marketers at treatment levels not less than the Lower Additives Certification (LAC) limits, as these MFAs meets the criteria for acceptance mentioned above.

Conforms to IS:2796-2014 Motor Gasoline Specification (Fifth Revision)

Furnace Oil

Furnace Oil [FO 180/380 CST]

Furnace oil is a dark, viscous residual fuel oil which is obtained by blending residual products from various refining processes with suitable diluents usually middle distillates to obtain the required fuel oil grades. These fuel oil grades are similar in nature and have been marketed under different specifications in various countries. In India it is sold under BIS specification IS 1593-1982 (Reaffirmed 1997), Medium Viscosity Grade 2 (MV 2 – 180 cst FO) / High Viscosity Grade (HV – 380 cst FO).

  • Uses of Furnace Oil are:
  • As fuel for Power Generation in DG Sets
  • As fuel for Boilers/ Furnaces/ Air preheater/ Any other Heaters
  • Fuel for Bunkering
  • Fuel/ Feedstock in Fertilizer Plants
  • Furnace oil is a class C product having Flash Point above 66 OC. Since this is a residual fuel, there has to be gradual filtration system to prevent the filter choking and fuel nozzles choking. Due to its viscous nature, it has to be heated to improve its flow and to a proper temperature for proper atomisation. Normally gear pumps are preferred to avoid cavitation problems.

Specifications of Furnace Oil are as under :

Sl No. Characteristics


Methods of Test [P:]of IS:1448
    Grade Grade Grade Grade  
    LV MV1 MV2 HV  
(i) Inorganic acidity Nil Nil Nil Nil [P:2]
(ii) Ash, % wt. Max 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 [P:4] Method A
(iii) Gross calorific value, Cal/ gm Not limited but to be reported (typical – 10000) [P:6 or 7]
(iv) * Density at 15OC Not limited but to be reported (typical – 0.950) [P:32]
(v) Flash point (PMCC) OC. Min 66 66 66 66 [P:21]
(vi) Kinematic viscosity, cst at 50OC 80 Max 80-125 125-180 180-370 [P:25]
(vii) Sediment, % wt. Max 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 [P:30]
(viii) Sulphur, total % wt. Max 3.5 4.0 4.0 4.5 [P:33 or 35]
(ix) Water content, % v/v, Max 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 [P:40]


*Furnace oil for marine uses in diesel engines shall not exceed a limit of 0.99.

Conforms to IS:1593-1982 Specifications for Fuel Oil (Reaffirmed 1997)

Light Diesel Oil (LDO)

Light Diesel Oil (LDO) is a blend of distillate components and small proportion of residual components. It falls under class C category with flash point above 66°C. It is marketed under BIS 15770-2008 specification. LDO is used for slow speed diesel engines (below 750 rpm). It is also used in Lift irrigation pumpsets, DG Sets and as a fuel in certain boilers and furnaces where low sulfur fuel is required.

Specification of Light Diesel Oil is given below :

Sl No. Characteristics Requirements Methods of Test [P:]of IS:1448
(i) Acidity, inorganic Nil [P:2]
(ii) Ash, percent by mass, Max 0.02 [P:4]
(iii) Carbon residue (Ramsbottom) on 10 percent residue, percent by mass, Max 1.5 (on whole sample) [P:8]
(iv) Pour point, Max   [P:10]
  a) Winter 12OC  
  b) Summer 21OC  
(v) Copper strip corrosion for 3 h at 100OC Not worse than No.2 [P:15]
(vi) Flash point Pensky Martens, OC, Min 66 [P:21]
(vii) Kinematic viscosity, cst at 40OC 2.5 to 15.0 [P:25]
(viii) Sediment, percent by mass, Max 0.10 [P:30]
(ix) Density at 15OC, kg/ m3 To be reported [P:16]
(x) Total sulphur, percent by mass, Max 1.5 [P:33]
(xi) Water content, percent by volume, Max 0.25 [P:40]

Conforms to IS:15770-2008 Light Diesel Oil Specifications

Low Sulphur Heavy Stock (LSHS) and Heavy Petroleum Stock (HPS)

LSHS and HPS are residual fuels produced after processing of indigenous crudes. These have high pour points and require special handling arrangements. LSHS has special advantage of having low Sulphur content and high calorific value. These are used in lieu of furnace oil in the same applications where furnace oil is suitable.

Specifications of LSHS and HPS is given as under :

Sl No. Characteristics


Methods of Test [P:]of IS:1448
    Grade 1 (LSHS) Grade 2 (HPS) [P:]of IS:1448
(i) Pour point, OC, Max 66 72 [P:10]
(ii) Flash point, (PMCC), OC, Min 76 66 [P:21]
(iii) Kinematic viscosity, mm2/s at 100OC, Max

To be reported

(iv) Relative density at 15/ 15OC

To be reported

(v) Gross calorific value, cal/ gm

To be reported – see note [P:6]*

(vi) Acidity, Inorganic Nil Nil [P:2]
(vii) Ash, % by Mass, Max 0.1 0.1 [P:4] Method A
(viii) Sediment, % by mass, Max 0.25 0.25 [P:30]
(ix) Sulphur, total, % by mass, Max 1.0 4.5 [P:33]**
(x) Water content, % v/v, Max 1.0 1.0 [P:40]

*[P:6] method is for reference and [P:7] for routine.
**[P:33] method is for reference and [P:35] for routine.

Note : Normally the gross calorific value is of the order of 10,000 cal/ gm.

LSHS Conforms to IS:11489-1985 (Reaffirmed 2001, Amend..1) Specifications for Heavy Petroleum Stock Grade 1

HPS Conforms to IS:11489-1985 (Reaffirmed 2001, Amend. 1) Specifications for Heavy Petroleum Stock Grade 2


Petcoke is used as fuel in cement kilns & power plants to produce power after gasification. It is also used in Steel, Aluminium, Graphite & Titanium industries. It is a highly polluting solid substance and requires special handling system to avoid polluting the environment.

Petcoke is produced in a Delayed Coker Unit (DCU) in Refinery and has higher Sulphur content than the Fuel Oil but a better option than coal. Two types of Petcoke are being marketed – Calcined (CPC) and Raw (RPC). Raw Petcoke has two grades – Calcination grade RPC and Fuel grade RPC. It is presently available ex Bina & Numaligarh Refineries and very shortly it would be made available ex Kochi Refinery.

Specifications of Petcoke is given as under :

Parameters Unit Calcination Fuel
Moisture as received % mas, max 10 8-12
Total Sulphur %, wt 2.50 4.5 – 7.5
Ash Content %, wt 0.45 0.2 – 0.3
Volatile Matter %, wt 12 8 -11
Fixed Carbon %, wt, min 85 87.73 – 91.01
Calorific Value Kcal/kg NA 7800 - 8000

Conforms to BIS specification IS:8502 - 1994