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International Year of Statistics
2013 is the International Year of Statistics, a worldwide event supported by more than 1,700 organizations!
You may be asking yourself, “Why celebrate statistics?” The short answer is because statistics have powerful and far-reaching effects on everyone, yet most people are unaware of their connection—from the foods they eat to the medicines they take—and how statistics improve their lives.
The founding organizations of the International Year of Statistics—also called Statistics2013—are the American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, International Biometric Society, International Statistical Institute (and the Bernoulli Society), and Royal Statistical Society. As established by the founding organizations, the campaign’s primary objectives are to do the following:
What is Statistics?
When many people hear the word “statistics,” they think of either sports-related numbers or the college class they took and barely passed. While statistics can be thought about in these terms, there is more to the relationship between you and statistics than you probably imagine.
So, what is statistics? Several informal definitions are offered in the book A Career in Statistics: Beyond the Numbers by Gerald Hahn and Necip Doganaksoy:
Statistics is used around the world by governments, political parties, civil servants, financial companies, opinion-polling firms, social researchers, news organizations, and so much more.
Statisticians, the scientists who collect and analyze data, work in many areas that touch your life, including the following:
Statistics is becoming more critical as academia, businesses, and governments come to rely on data-driven decisions, greatly expanding the demand for statisticians.
How Does Statistics Affect You?
You may not be aware of it, but statistics affects nearly every aspect of your life, including:
10 Everyday Reasons Why Statistics Are Important
Statistics are sets of mathematical equations that are used to analyze what is happening in the world around us. You've heard that today we live in the Information Age where we understand a great deal about the world around us. Much of this information was determined mathematically by using statistics. When used correctly, statistics tell us any trends in what happened in the past and can be useful in predicting what may happen in the future.
Let's look at some examples of how statistics shape your life when you don't even know it.
1. Weather Forecasts
Do you watch the weather forecast sometime during the day? How do you use that information? Have you ever heard the forecaster talk about weather models? These computer models are built using statistics that compare prior weather conditions with current weather to predict future weather.
2. Emergency Preparedness
What happens if the forecast indicates that a hurricane is imminent or that tornadoes are likely to occur? Emergency management agencies move into high gear to be ready to rescue people. Emergency teams rely on statistics to tell them when danger may occur.
3. Predicting Disease
Lots of times on the news reports, statistics about a disease are reported. If the reporter simply reports the number of people who either have the disease or who have died from it, it's an interesting fact but it might not mean much to your life. But when statistics become involved, you have a better idea of how that disease may affect you.
For example, studies have shown that 85 to 95 percent of lung cancers are smoking related. The statistic should tell you that almost all lung cancers are related to smoking and that if you want to have a good chance of avoiding lung cancer, you shouldn't smoke.
4. Medical Studies
Scientists must show a statistically valid rate of effectiveness before any drug can be prescribed. Statistics are behind every medical study you hear about.
Many people are afflicted with diseases that come from their genetic make-up and these diseases can potentially be passed on to their children. Statistics are critical in determining the chances of a new baby being affected by the disease.
6. Political Campaigns
Whenever there's an election, the news organizations consult their models when they try to predict who the winner is. Candidates consult voter polls to determine where and how they campaign. Statistics play a part in who your elected government officials will be
You know that in order to drive your car you are required by law to have car insurance. If you have a mortgage on your house, you must have it insured as well. The rate that an insurance company charges you is based upon statistics from all drivers or homeowners in your area.
8. Consumer Goods
Wal-Mart, a worldwide leading retailer, keeps track of everything they sell and use statistics to calculate what to ship to each store and when. From analyzing their vast store of information, for example, Wal-Mart decided that people buy strawberry Pop Tarts when a hurricane is predicted in Florida! So they ship this product to Florida stores based upon the weather forecast.
9. Quality Testing
Companies make thousands of products every day and each company must make sure that a good quality item is sold. But a company can't test each and every item that they ship to you, the consumer. So the company uses statistics to test just a few, called a sample, of what they make. If the sample passes quality tests, then the company assumes that all the items made in the group, called a batch, are good.
10. Stock Market
Another topic that you hear a lot about in the news is the stock market. Stock analysts also use statistical computer models to forecast what is happening in the economy.
The unprecedented advances in digital technology during the second half of the 20th century has produced a measurement revolution that is transforming the world. Many areas of science are now being driven by new measurement technologies and many insights are being made by discovery-driven, as opposed to hypothesis-driven, experiments. Empiricism is back with a vengeance. The current scientific era is defined by its dependence on data and the statistical methods and concepts developed during the 20th century provide an incomparable toolbox to help tackle current challenges. The toolbox, along with computer science, will also serve as a base for the methods of tomorrow.
Statistics Education Resources
5 recipes you should learn to cook in 2013
Five-spice roasted chicken
Tofu and vegetable stir-fry recipe (Serves 4)
Penne with artichokes and olives
Salmon with mango salsa
Aromatic beef curry recipe (Serves 4)
Overview of the Automobile Industry
Industry performance in 2011-12
The cumulative production data for April-March 2012 shows production growth of 13.83 percent over same period last year. In March 2012 as compared to March 2011, production grew at a single digit rate of 6.83 percent. In 2011-12, the industry produced 20,366,432 vehicles of which share of two wheelers, passenger vehicles, three wheelers and commercial vehicles were 76 percent, 15 percent, 4 percent and 4 percent respectively.
The growth rate for overall domestic sales for 2011-12 was 12.24 percent amounting to 17,376,624 vehicles. In the month of only March 2012, domestic sales grew at a rate of 10.11 percent as compared to March 2011.
Passenger Vehicles segment grew at 4.66 percent during April-March 2012 over same period last year. Passenger Cars grew by 2.19 percent, Utility Vehicles grew by 16.47 percent and Vans by 10.01 percent during this period. In March 2012, domestic sales of Passenger Cars grew by 19.66 percent over the same month last year. Also, sales growth of total passenger vehicle in the month of March 2012 was at 20.59 percent (as compared to March 2011). For the first time in history car sales crossed two million in a financial year.
The overall Commercial Vehicles segment registered growth of 18.20 percent during April-March 2012 as compared to the same period last year. While Medium & Heavy Commercial Vehicles (M&HCVs) registered a growth of 7.94 percent, Light Commercial Vehicles grew at 27.36 percent. In only March 2012, commercial vehicle sales registered a growth of 14.82 percent over March 2011.
Three Wheelers sales recorded a decline of (-) 2.43 percent in April-March 2012 over same period last year. While Goods Carriers grew by 6.31 percent during April-March 2012, Passenger Carriers registered decline by (-) 4.50 percent. In March 2012, total Three Wheelers sales declined by (-) 9.11 percent over March 2011.
Total Two Wheelers sales registered a growth of 14.16 percent during April-March 2012. Mopeds, Motorcycles and Scooters grew by 11.39 percent, 12.01 percent and 24.55 percent respectively. If we compare sales figures of March 2012 to March 2011, the growth for two wheelers was 8.27 percent.
During April-March 2012, the industry exported 2,910,055 automobiles registering a growth of 25.44 percent. Passenger Vehicles registered growth at 14.18 percent in this period. Commercial Vehicles, Three Wheelers and Two Wheelers segments recorded growth of 25.15 percent, 34.41 percent and 27.13 percent respectively during April-March 2012. For the first time in history car exports crossed half a million in a financial year.
In March 2012 compared to March 2011, overall automobile exports registered a growth of 17.81 percent.
High Performance Digital Power Charger 5600mAh Dual-USB Deluxe Edition
EUR 152.00 CHF 196.00
Management Tips: 10 Quick Tips for How to Delegate
How to delegate tip # 1. Get Clear on Why Delegation is Important – to You
1. Get the time and space to do the most important parts of the job really well. You do the work only you can do?
2. Get your staff members take charge of some work which develops their ability and potential?
3. Make the most effective use of the resources available to you?
Getting clear on your goals for delegation (and any of the goals above are very good goals) you’ll be much more likely to get started on the delegation process
How to delegate tip #2. Identify your "High Value Activities"
How to delegate tip #3. Identify the Tasks
How to delegate tip #4. Identify the Employee
Use some selection criteria such as those I outline in How to Delegate – Getting Started How to delegate tip #5. Identify How Much of the Task to Delegate You don’t have to delegate all of the task. Sometimes it’s easier and more effective to delegate part of a task (for example if your employee is not ready to take full responsibility but can do elements of it now and learn others later). As long as you are clear on exactly who is responsible for which elements of the task you won’t have a problem
How to delegate tip #6. Get Crystal Clear on What the Delegated Task Is
How to delegate tip #7. Sell the Delegation
How to delegate tip #8. Agree coaching needs
How to delegate tip #9. Agree the monitoring of the task
How to delegate tip #10. Now Back Off!
Common Sense Auto Care Tips for Women
If your father never told you, a shade tree mechanic might. There are a lot of simple, common sense things women should know about car care and driving that can save them problems on the road, or prevent some from ever happening. Of course, major breakdowns to occur. But here are a few auto care tips for women that can help them avoid some car snafus.
Auto care if your car overheats...
Turn on the heater full blast.. This pulls heat off the engine. Then keep an eye on the gauge to see if it changes. Of course, if the car overheats while the air conditioner is on, turn the A/C off immediately since it taxes the engine. Coasting can also help cool the engine if you can't pull over right away. Remember not to ever remove the radiator cap on a hot engine or you'll risk explosive heat. The cap maintains pressure so removing it when the car is hot is like opening a volcano.
If you'll be sitting idle for more than 90 seconds, like at a train crossing or drive-thru, pop your automatic transmission into neutral. This takes some of the strain off the engine and lets it rest a bit.
Auto care for tires...
Practice pre-emptive auto care, by getting in the habit of glancing at your tires as you walk to your car. Soon it'll be second nature and you'll know before leaving home if you have a potential auto care problem. Don't wait to check a tire that looks low. Not only will you avoid flats, but your tires will last longer when properly inflated, and your car will get better gas mileage.
While you are driving, if the car seems to be pulling right or left, it could indicate a low tire that is on its way to a blow-out. Don't ignore the warning signal. As soon as you safely can, pull off and take a look. If it really is low, get to a service station as soon as possible or call for help (or change your tire).
More pre-emptive auto care...when tires get worn in spots, the cords can begin to pop out. You may not be able to see the cords, so once in a while, especially before a trip, run your hands all around the tires and see if you feel anything you shouldn't, like wires.
Auto care for battery cables and connectors...
Basic auto care requires that you open the hood once in a while and look at your battery. If your battery connectors become corroded and covered with greenish, fuzzy material, you could end up going nowhere fast because corrosion inhibits current flow. You can clean the corrosion yourself by pouring some cola directly on the green fuzz. If it's stubborn, you may have to remove the cables and scrub the corrosion with a wire brush that you can get at a hardware store. The corrosion is battery acid so you will need gloves and eye protection. If your battery is the type that needs to be topped off, check it regularly, especially in hot weather. Use distilled water. Also, with a little advance auto care you may sidestep battery problems by keeping the top of the battery clean, since dirt acts as a conductor which drains power.
Auto care for brakes...
If you must drive through a puddle, your brakes could get wet. After leaving the puddle, accelerate slowly while applying your brake. That exposes the brakes to air, giving them a chance to dry.
If you must hit a pothole, don't keep the brakes applied. Doing that locks up the wheel and can damage the suspension.
If you're traveling on a windy, steep, downhill road you may be tempted to apply your brakes more than you should. If the brakes get hot, they may start to smoke and emit a strong chemical smell. If that happens, pull over in a safe spot and give the brakes time to cool down. You may be able to avoid this problem by putting your car in a lower gear before traveling downhill, causing the car to go slower without the need for constant braking.
Auto care according to smell...
Some car problems give you no warning whatsoever. But fortunately, other problems announce themselves with definite odors.
Here is a checklist of car odors that may be no big deal, or may require that you put down the keys, call a tow truck and let a professional handle your auto care needs.
Burning coolant. You could have a blown head gasket, which causes coolant to mix with your gas. If this is the case, you may notice thick, sweet-smelling, whitish smoke coming from the tailpipe. At this point, you may need professional auto care, so see your mechanic.
Exhaust. You may have a leak in your exhaust system, like a hole in your muffler, tailpipe, or exhaust manifold or exhaust pipe. Once again, it may be time for professional auto care.
Burning trash. Is your engine burning oil? If your car is older, you may have worn piston rings. These rings seal gaps between pistons and engine cylinders. If they wear down, oil can leak out of the cylinder walls. The oil burns, and exits the tailpipe in smelly, blackish puffs of smoke. Don't take chances. See your auto care technician.
Hot oil. If oil is leaking, it may boil onto engine components and bake. Start by checking to see if your oil cap is loose.
Fresh asphalt. This could be a sign of an overheated engine. Something is melting down, like plastic parts under the hood. If that happens, a chain reaction may result, making the engine hotter and hotter.
Raw gas. Is the gas cap loose? Did you overfill the tank? If neither of these is possible, don't risk starting the engine. You may have a severed gas line or leaky fuel-injection system. You're going to need professional auto care, so your best bet is to have it towed to a technician you trust.
Rotten eggs. This could indicate a plugged or damaged catalytic converter or a too-rich air/fuel mixture. Call your mechanic, since this is a sign of electrical malfunction.
Burnt toast. A burnt toast smell could mean the electrical insulation is burning. Again, call your mechanic for a professional auto care opinion. You may have an electrical malfunction.
Burning plastic. This may be as simple as a plastic bag caught under the car. Use a flashlight to check. If that's the case, you'll probably just have to wait for the plastic to burn off.
Burning rubber. A rubber hose may be resting on the exhaust manifold, or a belt may be shredded by a jammed pulley. If a belt is loose or worn, it is usually indicated by a squeal. Turn off your engine and inspect the hoses and belts and replace as necessary. Could the smell be from your brakes? As mentioned above, after a long, steep descent, it's not uncommon to smell your brakes. Try using a lower gear. If you smell your brakes during normal driving, get them checked immediately.
Miscellaneous auto care...
Suppose your fan belt breaks miles from anywhere. In a pinch, you can use panty hose. Just loop the pantyhose around the fan belt cogs and, if possible, cut off the loose ends. Then get yourself to a mechanic.
If you're driving on a windy day and the wind is pushing the car around, you can counteract that somewhat by rolling the two rear windows down a few inches. That allows the wind to go through the car instead of pushing against it.
Once in a while, clean your windshield wipers with window cleaner and a paper towel to remove the road oil and grime. They'll last longer and perform better, and cause less eye fatigue for the driver.
If your car has a problem smell, you may be able to solve it simply with dryer sheets. Even a strong smoke smell can eventually be defeated by tucking dryer sheets in every nook and cranny of the interior of the car. After a while, you should be able to remove the sheets and the smell should have vanished.
If pet hair is an issue, you know it can seem sticky when you try to vacuum or brush it. Try spraying it with Static Guard, which should loosen it.
When you do need a mechanic for auto care...
Of course you know there are times when you need professional auto care. Many women feel taken advantage of by male mechanics. Before you make an appointment, ask friends and family where they take their cars for auto care. You can also call local consumer groups to find out if a particular auto care shop has complaints registered against them. Choose a shop with ASE certified mechanics (ASE stands for Automotive Service Excellence).
When you take your vehicle in for auto care, ask for an estimate in writing. Also ask a lot of questions and write down the answers, including a list of the parts the mechanic thinks you will need. That way, if you get a call in the middle of a busy work day telling you your car needs additional repairs and parts you can repeat their own words back to them as you ask questions. Tell the mechanics up front that you'll want to see (or take home) any parts they remove from your car. If the repair is costly, you may want to get a second opinion.
As with any area of life, there are honest, trustworthy mechanics, and those who will pump up the bill by trying to scare you. If he says something like "I wouldn't drive two blocks in this death trap!" be wary. Don't succomb to pressure... after all, it is still your car and you're in charge of your auto care. Finally, you shouldn't go into a auto care shop acting cocky as though you know more than you do. But arm yourself with a little knowledge, describe the problem as clearly as possible or take a test drive with the auto care specialist and point out the problem, and be willing to ask questions.
Know the amazing facts of Indian Railways
Indian Railways is billed to be 'Lifeline of the Nation' with its stupendous performance for the last many years. It is the premier transport organization of the country having largest rail network in Asia and world's largest railway system under a single management. Indian Railways employs about 1.6 million people, making itself the second largest commercial or utility employer in the world.
Here is a list of some interesting and amazing facts about Indian Railways.
IREP Launch at Kochi
Bharat Petroleum Kochi Refinery is embarking on the prestigious Integrated Refinery Expansion Project (IREP) which will greatly contribute to energizing the economy of the region.
With the implementation of the IREP, the refining capacity of Kochi Refinery will increase by 6 Million Metric Tonnes Per Annum (MMTPA) viz. from the present 9.5 MMTPA to 15.5 MMTPA
The project envisages modernization of the refinery, equipping it to produce environmentally friendly auto fuels complying with BS-IV/BS-V specifications. The upgradation of the residue stream will enable the refinery to produce more value added products and the heavy stream generation from the refinery will be minimized.
Propylene produced as a result of the IREP will be used as feedstock for BPCL’s proposed petrochemical complex.
The capacity expansion by 6 MMTPA will be facilitated by installing a new state-of-the-art Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) of 10.5 MMTPA. This new CDU will replace the existing 4.5 MMTPA CDU-1 resulting in energy saving and environmental protection. Apart from the new CDU, associated process units like Delayed Coker Unit (DCU), Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU), VGO Hydro-treater (VGO HDT), Diesel Hydrotreater (DHDT) Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) and Hydrogen Generation Unit (HGU) along with matching Utilities and Off-site facilities are also planned as part of the project.
Propylene, a petrochemical building block, which is produced from these facilities, will be used to make niche petrochemical products like Acrylates, Super absorbent Polymer, Oxo alcohol, etc. The Propylene based petrochemical plant will be a Joint Venture company where the JV partner's technology and marketing expertise will be leveraged. The estimated cost of the project including the petrochemical plant is `20,000 Crores. The IREP is scheduled to be completed by December 2015.
The Project is as much about energizing Society and the Environment as it is about Energising Industry.
Ambalamugal – Future Petrochemical hub
The Integrated Refinery Expansion Project of BPCL Kochi Refinery will provide the launch pad for the setting up of a vibrant petrochemical industry in Kerala. The project has great potential to attract a host of downstream industries.
The petrochemical foray will facilitate the production of niche products and will utilize the feedstock of 500,000 MTPA of Propylene and 75,000 MTPA of Ethylene that would be available after the expansion of the Refinery. The project will be set up close to the refinery in order to integrate the JV with the Refinery. Feasibility studies are in progress in this respect. It is expected that these projects would be completed by early 2016.
A range of petrochemicals including Acrylic acid, Acrylates, Oxo Alcohols, Benzene, Ethylene, Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP) and Ethylene Di-Chloride will be produced through the joint venture.
The Kerala Government is planning to set up a petrochemical complex to use the above petrochemicals as feedstock and produce value added materials producing paints, adhesives, diapers, plasticizers, paper coating, and stabilizers.
Ambalamugal is set to be transformed into the petrochemical hub of Southern India.
The Integrated Refinery Expansion Project is set to be the single largest investment in the state of Kerala. The project has the potential to generate ample employment opportunities as well as all round economic development and bring in a host of social benefits.
It will provide cleaner environment as a whole due to production of better quality auto-fuels and reduced usage of high Sulphur fuel oils.
The IREP could generate employment to over 20,000 people during the construction period of 3 to 4 years and also through supporting industries and associated infrastructure and service activities. Opportunities for direct employment will also emerge.
The project will enhance availability of additional quantity of petroleum products including auto fuels for meeting the growing demand of the country. Increased quantity of fuels and petrochemicals will mean fast tracking development. More job opportunities would enhance lifestyles. Faster development and better lifestyles will energise society.
Apart from improving the refining share, the Integrated Refinery Expansion Project will enable BPCL Kochi Refinery to produce environment friendly auto-fuels. The auto fuels produced from IREP will be BS-IV/ BS V compliant.
BPCL is implementing a Reverse Osmosis Plant to reuse the effluent water generated in the plant. Various pollution control measures required to meet the prevailing environmental standards are planned at different stages of execution of the project, viz., design, construction and operational phases. The refinery project is designed taking into account all the pollution control legislations and guidelines.
Low Sulphur fuels will be used in the units. For the new Sulphur Recovery unit, a tail gas treatment unit and a recovery of 99.9 wt% is being considered. Electro Static Precipitator (ESP) will be provided on Fluid Catalytic Cracker (FCC) unit stack so that the Particulate Matter in stack emission does not exceed 50 mg/Nm3. Heaters and furnaces will be provided with well proven Low NOx burners to reduce the emissions of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx).
A comprehensive wastewater management system shall be made available in the Refinery to treat the liquid effluents to meet the Minimal National Standards (MINAS) and State Pollution Control Board requirements. The oily effluent streams from process units and the tank farm area are to be treated in the proposed process Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Floor wash and contaminated rainwater shall be received through a separate pipeline and treated separately.
In a nutshell, the IREP at Kochi Refinery will provide a great impetus to Industry, upgrade the quality of life in Society and contribute towards safeguarding the environment for future generations.
God’s own Country, Kerala, stands resplendent with an abundance of flora and fauna. Bharat Petroleum’s IREP is another commitment towards enhancing and sustaining these valuable assets in this state and the rest of the country.
CDU/VDU: This is the first major process unit. The crude oil is first heated to about 375 deg C and sent to a atmospheric column and various product streams are taken out and sent to various treatment units for further treating/processing.
Diesel Hydro de sulphurisation Unit (DHDS) : Removes Sulphur from Diesel
VGO Hydrotreating Unit (VGO HDT) : Removes Sulphur from VGO which is the feed to FCCU
Naptha Hydrotreater/Isomerisation Unit (NHT/ISOM) : Produces Isomerate which is a Petrol blending stream
Delayed Coker Unit (DCU) : Recovers value added products from refinery residue streams
Hydrogen Generation Unit(HGU) : Produce Hydrogen which is used in hydro-desulphurisation processes
Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) : Recovers Sulphur as elemental Sulphur